The textbook that we will be using for our Drawing class is titled Drawing from observation by Brian Curtis.*
The Text is divided into chapters and topics. The sketchbook assignments are listed with the chapters.
* This information is provided for your convenience. You may also refer to the textbook in the classroom.
The Text is divided into chapters and topics. The sketchbook assignments are listed with the chapters.
* This information is provided for your convenience. You may also refer to the textbook in the classroom.
Click on this link to test yourself on your knowledge of drawing concepts presented in our textbook.
CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED (no sketchbook exercises)
CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS
Art supplies. The $15 Lab Fee will pay for a sketchbook, drawing paper, construction paper, newsprint paper, printer paper, transfer paper, poster board, scratchboard, bristol board, a clipboard, graphite pencils, charcoal, chalk, pastels, India Ink, ballpoint pens, scratch knives, Exacto knives, scissors, blenders, erasers, yardstick, ruler, protractor, compass, masking tape and fixative. If you choose to NOT pay the lab fee or apply for a fee waiver, local retail stores can usually provide you with everything you need. We recommend Artist's Corner at 380 South Orem Blvd. If a student has not paid the fee/waiver application, s/he will be given minimal supplies (printer paper, #2 pencil and paper clip) to complete the class assignments.
CHAPTER 3 DRAWING MECHANICS
Holding the pencil. The drawing grip takes a little getting used to. The first exercises are aimed at familiarizing you with the touch of the pencil on the paper surface, so initially it is best to forego any attempts at drawing what you see and instead concentrate entirely on familiarizing yourself with the feel of the drawing tool as it moves across the paper's surface. The two most important elements at this stage of the process will be developing the ability to continually alternate the amount of pressure you apply to the tip and developing a constant awareness of the ever-changing shape of the tip of the charcoal.
Exercise 3.1 Delicate circles. As softly and delicately as possible, draw a large circular form on your paper that fills up most of the page. It should resemble a circle, but don't worry if it develops a somewhat eccentric shape. It's the marks that count. At the very beginning try to make contact with the surface of the paper so lightly that you leave barely any marks on the surface. Move your arm from your shoulder and take advantage of the sweeping, smooth arc that it can provide. Go around and around many times, periodically reversing directions, and continuing to keep the touch gentle. If you have already made heavy marks, turn the page (or turn the paper over) and try again. Once you have a feel for a delicate touch, you can increase the pressure on your pencil as it approaches the bottom of the circle and then decrease the pressure as you move back toward the top. Ideally, your "circle" will remain very light (nearly invisible) at the very top and gradually get darker and thicker at the bottom, with smooth transitions throughout.
Exercise 3.2 Pressure changes. On a new page, make a series of five closely spaced, delicate, nearly invisible vertical lines that run from near the top of your page to the bottom. Then try five more that are moderate in their degree of pressure and then five with heavy pressure. Finally, try a series of ten or more lines in which the pressure changes every 2 or 3 inches from delicate to moderate to heavy and then back again in the next 2 or 3 inches from heavy to moderate to delicate. The important element here is to control the changes in pressure so that the transitions between the differences in line thickness and darkness occur smoothly and gradually. Avoid "breaks" in the line that start resembling dots and dashes.
Exercise 3.3 Erasers. Take your different erasers and use them to vary the moderate and heavy lines in exercise 3.2. An eraser is not just to remove marks from the surface of the paper but is actually a valuable drawing tool that gives additional control over the quality and variations of marks on the surface. Erasing is particularly helpful to those of us who are somewhat heavy-handed and tend to use more pressure than we intend.
Exercise 3.4 Expressive Lines. Start by using masking tape to create five small rectangular boxes on the surface of your paper (with sides between 5 and 8 inches long). Use the pencils and the charcoal sticks and your erasers to make as rich a variety of marks as possible as you "illustrate" a different concept in each box in any manner that you feel appropriate. The concepts are: excitement, beauty, speed, tension, and mystery.
CHAPTER 4 INTUITIVE GESTURE
Exercise 4.1 Still life sketches. Begin gesturing very quickly from a small group of still-life objects (three to five) so that when you stop after thirty seconds there is the start of some sort of delicate linear notation that relates to your initial estimate of the size, location, and correct spacing of the objects you are observing. If you have not included everything, you need to work faster. Drawing rapidly helps stimulate intuitive (perceptual) thought processing and restricts logical processing, so gesture as fast as you can. Don't worry about accuracy, which will develop over time. For now, just learn to let your intuition guide your gesture. After the initial thirty seconds take a look at the marks you've made and determine if there are any major discrepancies between your gesture and the arrangement of objects in your visual field. If so, make the appropriate correction and continue for a full minute, adding more specific information about size and placement. Stop at the end of one minute and evaluate the accuracy of your gesture. Repeat in one-minute increments to a total of five per drawing. Do this exercise six times. Then do it three times, continuing the gesture for ten minutes. (Rearrange the objects each time you begin a new gesture.)
Exercise 4.2 Eye Movements. The next gesture exercise doesn't include using your pencil and paper. It can be done anywhere there are things to look at that are relatively close by. Look carefully at any object and concentrate on how rapidly and constantly your eye moves as your visually absorb the information.
Exercise 4.3 Perceptions. All gesture drawings proceed the same regardless of how long you intend to work on them. Whether you stop after the first thirty seconds, work for five or ten minutes, or continue estimating and correcting your perceptions for an hour or more, a gesture is always a progressive process of estimating, evaluating, and correcting. Try two extended half-hour gestures but make sure that the marks you are using remain sketchy and incomplete until you are absolutely sure the relationships in your gesture match the arrangement in your visual field. Look, don't think.
CHAPTER 5 THE PERCEPTUAL GRID
Exercise 5.1 Perceptual grid. Identify three symbols (religious, political, scientific, or corporate) that reflect an underlying design motif that emphasizes the vertical and horizontal axes of our perceptual grid. The ones already found in the text don't count.
Exercise 5.2 Mondrian tool. Start an extended intuitive gesture (place the objects so that they are at different distances from you). Make sure that everything in your still-life setup appears within the edges of the paper. Work rapidly and keep the lines as sketchy as possible as you gradually work toward an ever more accurate estimation of the size and placement of the objects in your drawing. Gesture for at least a full minute before applying the Mondrian tool. This x/y axis tool is to be used primarily as a method to evaluate the accuracy of your perceptions. It should be applied only after you have gestured everything in your visual field and should not be relied on as a tool to systematically construct the spatial relationships in the drawing. Over-reliance on the Mondrian usually means that it will take you much longer to arrive at an accurate arrangement of forms because the tool, by its very nature, forces you to concentrate on individual relationships instead of the "big picture."
Only after you have a fairly complete estimation of everything in your visual field should you begin to apply the Mondrian tool and the Mondrian lines. The Mondrian lines on the drawing surface should represent each relationship you test with the tool in your visual field. They should be extremely delicate so as not to dominate as the drawing develops, but they should not be erased, because they add both visual texture and perceptual content to the image. In this way, the gesture is not only about things but also about the act of visual perception. There should be a Mondrian line for every edge of every form and for every change in shape. Twenty Mondrian lines for three to five objects is a conservative number. Go for more. There can never be too many Mondrian lines, but there can certainly be too few. Do two extended one-hour intuitive gestures with extensive Mondrian lines.
Exercise 5.3 Alberti's veil. You might enjoy constructing a simplified version of Alberti's veil and do it as they did in the Renaissance. It consists of a woven grid of parallel squares that can be used, like the Mondrian tool, for the transcription of spatial relationships from the visual field. This can be constructed using a stiff piece of cardboard with a square hole cut in it, some tape, and either string or thread. If you do make such a drawing device, keep in mind that it doesn't do anything that a clean straight-edge held intuitively to what you know to be horizontal or vertical can't do just as well, if not better. Whether you use Alberti's veil or a Mondrian straightedge, always remember to face in exactly the same direction every time you apply it to the objects in your visual field.
CHAPTER 6 INTUITIVE PERSPECTIVE
Exercise 6.1 Clock angle tool. Start an extended intuitive gesture from a still life (three to five objects) that is composed primarily of rectilinear solids. Arrange the solids so that no more than two of the rectilinear solids have sides that are parallel with one another. Begin with loose, rapid, sketchy marks that estimate the size and placement of the forms in space. Once you have a notation for each object, apply an intensive grid of Mondrian lines to evaluate your initial drawing. Make all needed corrections and continue the gesture process. As the drawing develops and the character and details of the objects gradually emerge, apply the clock-angle tool to all receding edges to determine their proper tilt. Do two one-hour drawings of differently arranged objects, following all the steps mentioned above.
CHAPTER 7 POSITIVE/NEGATIVE SHAPE
Exercise 7.1 Negative space still life. To strengthen your ability to identify the shape of the negative spaces between objects, you should set up your still-life objects against a solid-color wall. Choose objects that have distinctive and irregular shapes (toys, lamps, cooking utensils, plants, garden utensils, sporting equipment, etc.). It is preferable that some of them be relatively large. Set the objects close to the wall with a fair amount of overlap among them. Then take several pieces of masking tape and create a rectangle on the wall whose overall dimensions are slightly smaller than the area taken up by the arrangement of objects. (Before putting the tape on a painted surface it is a good idea to lessen its adhesive potential by first pressing it against a piece of cloth several times -- this way it won't take paint off when it is removed.) Once you have set up your negative still life, the next step is to concentrate on the shapes of each of the segments of exposed wall that are visible within the area marked off by the tape rectangle. Carefully reproduce each one. Look only at the wall shapes, not at the items you've placed against the wall. If you slip and draw the edges of the objects, you will inadvertently draw lines that have nothing to do with the wall segments. This is probably the only exercise in the entire text in which line variation doesn't play a major role. You are drawing wall shapes, not dimensional objects, so the line is an outline and can be quite mechanical in character. If you do this extremely carefully, you will have a very interesting image that will strongly suggest those things that you haven't drawn, thereby illustrating the effectiveness of an awareness of negative space. This exercise can easily take an hour or more. Do it at least twice to make sure that you can "flip the perceptual switch."
CHAPTER 8 PROPORTION
Exercise 8.1 Whiteboard proportions. If you have access to a whiteboard, an excellent first exercise for heightening your sensitivity to proportion is to gesture the overall dimensions of the whiteboard until you think you've accurately recorded the correct size relationship between the sides. Once this is accomplished, proceed to measure the board's overall proportion using the straightedge proportion tool. Draw first, measure second. At this stage use a yardstick to make a vertical line down the actual blackboard at some position other than the center. Estimate where that line would be on your drawing. There are now two new rectangles to measure. When all measurements are the same for the whiteboard and the drawing, it's time to add a horizontal line to the actual board. Repeat this procedure. You can add as many as three lines in each direction. The challenge comes in keeping everything proportional as it gets more visually complex. If this exercise is done in a classroom with a number of participants, those at the edges of the room are likely to be looking at the board from an oblique angle and will see substantially different proportions from those viewing the board straight on. Not only will the proportions change, but the top and bottom edges will appear to tilt (railroad track convergence).
Exercise 8.2 Cylinders still life. Take four or five cylindrical objects and arrange them at slightly different distances from you. Gesture the objects as we have done in previous exercises. When you are satisfied with the general placement, and the objects start to emerge into more recognizable forms, compare the proportions of the overall compositional proportion as well as each of the cylinders you've established in your drawing with measurements you take directly from the still life.
Exercise 8.3 Doors and windows. Spend at least two hours making gestural studies of as many different types of doors and windows as you can in the time available. You can do several on a single page. After drawing each door or window, measure the actual object with your proportion tool and then write down the proportions next to your drawing. Your drawing and the window should have identical proportions. Draw some of the doors and windows while standing at an oblique angle. Remember that the receding dimension will appear foreshortened and the receding edges will appear to converge.
CHAPTER 9 THE GOLDEN MEAN
Exercise 9.1 Your assignment is to locate the perfect person. Start with your own bodily proportions. Carefully measure your overall height (no shoes) and then carefully measure the height of your navel by placing a pencil against your navel and moving forward in order to make a small mark on a wall. (You will need help measuring this because you need a spotter to guarantee that your pencil is parallel to the floor). After collecting this information use a calculator to divide your overall height into the height of your navel. If you match the perfect proportions described by Leonardo in his Vitruvian Man, the answer will be 0.618. (Example 38.5" divided by 65.5" = 0.587.) Unfortunately most of us are a little over or under that magical number, but the average of humanity is probably a lot closer than that of most of its individual members. Don't be too disappointed if your proportions are slightly off. Instead, go, tape measure in hand, and track down an elusive specimen of human perfection.
CHAPTER 10 CROSS-CONTOUR
Exercise 10.1 Draw a cross-contour globe from imagination. It starts out much like the circular line exercise in Chapter 3 with the outside contour line getting heavier and darker toward the bottom. Once the outside contour is complete, gesture in an equator and several more lines (like latitude lines) that are parallel to it. These lines should get darker and thicker when they are closest to the viewer and become nearly invisible (fading into the background) when they are farthest away. The final step is to gesture in several longitude-like lines that pass through the poles. By following these directions your globe will look similar to but slightly different from the globe in Illustration 10.1a.
Exercise 10.2 Place your "official drawing flag" flat on the floor at least five giant steps away from where you are working, with one corner pointing toward you. Gesture the flag. Use Mondrian lines to check the alignment of the corners, establish the tilt and convergence of the receding edges using the clockangle tool, and check to see that the proportion is the same in the flag you are observing and the one in your drawing. (Hint: The stripes on the flag are all parallel with one set of edges and will therefore converge at the same point as those edges).
Exercise 10.3 Find a place where you can alternately position the "official drawing flag" at shoulder height, hip height, and knee height. On a single piece of paper, draw the flag three times, once for each height. Keep the flag approximately the same width in each attempt. Concentrate on the changes in proportion as the flag changes position. Gesture, Mondrian, clock angles, and line variation are all important as well.
Exercise 10.4 Take your masking tape and use it to arrange the "official drawing flag" on the floor (still five giant steps away) so that it has a pronounced curve in its surface. The first challenge is actually to find a way to arrange the flag so that the stripes on the flag visually react to the curved surface. If the stripes look predominately straight from your drawing position, you need to change the flag. When you are looking at your flag, you want to be able to imagine that the stripes are tracks of a roller-coaster and see them move up and over the one big hill. The illusion will work better if the flag is arranged so that you can see the majority of the stripes from one end to the other rather than when they disappear behind an overlapping curl.
Exercise 10.5 Same exercise as above, but this time arrange the flag so that is has two curls in the surface. Apply some atmospheric perspective to fade the back of the flag into the background.
Exercise 10.6 Same exercise as above, but this time arrange the flag so that it has one curl and one crisp fold in the surface. Apply some atmospheric perspective to fade the back of the flag into the background. Arrange the flag so that the stripes do disappear over either the curl or the fold, and use chiaroscuro to indicate changes in the way the light strikes the flag. Use exaggerated "lemming syndrome" when the lines disappear over the edge.
Exercise 10.7 Arrange the flag any way you wish that reflects convincing illusion of three-dimensional form and space and add a cylindrical object and/or a rectangular form to the still-life setup. Gesture all three objects using the appropriate techniques.
Exercise 10.8 (optional -- can take as long as six to twelve hours.) Get 2 or 3 yards of cloth with anywhere between a 1-inch and a 2-inch stripe. Drape the cloth over a distinctive-looking object (chairs work well). Tape (or staple) the cloth in place, once again concentrating on arranging the cloth so that the observable changes in direction of the stripes clearly reflect the underlying structural characteristics of the chair.
CHAPTER 11 FORESHORTENED CIRCLES
Exercise 11.1 Draw twenty-five ellipses on one page. Draw them small, large, and in-between. Draw them narrow, wide, and medium. After you draw each one, add a major and minor axis to the ellipse to test for the appropriate bilateral symmetry.
Exercise 11.2 Draw six foreshortened circles of equal width directly above one another with three appearing above eye level and three below. Increase the line thickness and darkness where the circle is closest to the picture plane and let the line gradually fade as it goes toward the back.
Exercise 11.3 Draw a group of three to five glasses that are standing upright at table height. Gesture, Mondrian, line variation, and proportion boxes are important steps. Concentrate on the progressive decompression of the ellipses that you are using to represent the cylindrical cross sections.
Exercise 11.4 Draw a group of three to five cylindrical forms at table height. Leave only one standing and lay the others over on their sides, each pointing in a different direction. Gesture, Mondrian, line variation, and proportion boxes are important steps. Locate the central cylindrical axis for each cylinder. (Hint: The central axis is parallel to the sides of the cylinder and will converge toward the same point as the sides if they are receding from the picture plane.) Tilt the ellipses that represent the cylindrical cross sections accordingly. Remember, too, that the cylindrical cross sections of a single object will become less compressed the farther they recede from the picture plane.
Exercise 11.5 Draw an imaginary birdhouse that is below eye level with a cone on top, a torus (doughnut shape) around the central cylinder, and a hole and a perch. The most important thing is to make sure that cylindrical cross sections become less compressed the farther they are from eye level. The other important issue is to make sure there is a smooth progression in the rate of decompression. As the birdhouse begins to take shape, apply some vertical cross-contour lines that start at the top of the cone and move directly down the side of the birdhouse, changing direction whenever the surface of the birdhouse changes.
Exercise 11.6 Draw an imaginary globe that is below eye level and has a ring of holes around any cross section of the sphere. Then attach a column of protruding dowels on what would be a longitude line. Remember that because the globe is below eye level the central axis of the sphere (North Pole) will appear inside the edge of the sphere, not on the contour edge.
Exercise 11.7 Same exercise as 11.5, but imagine the birdhouse to be above eye level with a sphere in the middle of the central cylinder.
Exercise 11.8 The ultimate birdhouse is one that is imagined to be so large (or so close to the observer) that the top is above eye level and the bottom is below eye level. Any added elements that you can work into your fanciful construction are encouraged, but remember that clear, readable space is the goal and any added content is valuable only if it enhances the illusion of space.
CHAPTER 12 BIOMORPHIC FORM
Exercise 12.1 Practice combining basic geometric forms (spheres, cylinders, cones, pyramids, and rectilinear solids) into compound schema. As with the birdhouses in Chapter 11, you must establish a clear idea of eye level as you begin to assemble the forms in your imagination. Include cross-contours that define the transitions where the forms are joined together. Draw through the forms as through they were transparent, being sure to vary the line quality to maximize the illusion of volume and depth.
(a) Try putting a large cone on top of a narrower, vertical cylinder and then put a sphere around the shaft of the cylinder.
(b) Draw a short, wide cylinder as through it tilts back in space, parallel to the ground. Add a cone with rounded tips to each end and place a narrow rectilinear solid through the sides of the cylinder.
(c) Put a cylinder into the top of a pyramid, a cone on the top of the cylinder and a large sphere on tip of the cone.
Exercise 12.2 Take the most successful compound scheme from the previous exercises and irregularize the surface by creating undulations, adding protuberances (lumps and bumps), and adding more forms (cylinders, cones, rectilinear solids) where appropriate. Make use of extensive cross-contour and line variation in order to maximize the illusion of a clear, consistent, and readable volumetric construction.
Exercise 12.3 Repear the previous exercise with another compound scheme from exercise 12.1.
Exercise 12.4 Create a compound scheme using a familiar volumetric item as inspiration. For example, a hamburger on a bun could be interpreted as a short, wide cylinder on top and another short, wide cylinder, with a half sphere on top. An athletic shoe could be the top half of a cylinder with a half cone at the tip and a rectilinear solid attached at the back. Take a look around and see what you can come up with.
Exercise 12.5 Start with a large sphere (include cross-contours right at the start so that you know where you want the eye level to be) and gradually carve away at the surface of the form to create your own version of the "Great Pumpkin." Feel free to add any irregularities and eccentricities that you can dream up as long as each addition furthers a clear, consistent, readable illusion of volume.
Exercise 12.6 Find a vegetable or a piece of fruit that is clearly volumetric and has a balance between a clear underlying schema and an irregular surface. Some fruits and vegetables, like oranges, are often too regular; and some, like green peppers, often get so distorted they are hard to make sense of. Cruise the produce aisles at your local market and bring home a winner. Start out gesturing the underlying schema with a good amount of cross-contour and then gradually add the irregularities.
Exercise 12.7 Find a tree outdoors or a section of a dead branch to bring into the studio. Look for a form with a moderately complex assortment of basic elements (cylinders, cones, rectilinear solids, half spheres). Start with highly simplified forms and gradually add irregularity. Line variation, cross-contour, and atmospheric perspective can make it sing.
CHAPTER 13 CHIAROSCURO
Exercise 13.1 Draw three 2-inch by 11-inch rectangles above one another on one sheet of newsprint.
(a) In the first box use your compressed charcoal pencils to make dark straight lines over one another (hatching and cross-hatching) in an attempt to create as even a progression as possible of dark to light from left to right. Build up tones gradually. Try to avoid using an eraser.
(b) In the second box use your compressed charcoal pencils to create a similar value range, but this time smudge (blend) the charcoal on the newsprint using the twisted end of a sheet of a paper towel or a paper napkin. Erasing works well for modulating the tonal range with this method of applying darks to your drawing.
(c) Same exercise as above, but this time use one of the sticks of compressed charcoal.
Exercise 13.2 Set up a single white cylinder or rectilinear solid on a white ground against a white background and shine a directional light on it. Draw the object and then apply both the value range that you see when you squint and the one you see when your eyes are wide open.
Exercise 13.3 Same as above, but this time, before you start to draw, lay down a medium-dark tone over the entire surface of the paper and then create the tonal drawing by erasing out the highlights and adding dark areas when necessary.
Exercise 13.4 Set up a still life of several objects that already are white or have been painted white. Put them on a white ground in front of a white backdrop in a moderately darkened space. Shine a directional lamp (incandescent bulb) onto them so that the light strikes the vertical edges of the objects more directly than the horizontal surfaces. Starting with a rapid gesture, apply Mondrian lines, clock angles, and proportion boxes to establish the size, character, and placement of the forms in your field of vision. Once this is done to your satisfaction, you will need to squint at your setup to identify the areas in your drawing that will remain white. Every other part of the drawing will appear darker than white. Apply the values rapidly. Work all over and do not get hung up on any single section of the drawing. You can't make subtle discriminations in tonal variation until you have closely approximated the overall tonal value relationships. Don't stop applying tone until what you see when you squint at your drawing is identical to what you see when you squint at your still life. Once this is accomplished, you can begin modulating the subtler tones that you can see with your eyes wide open. Take care not to let the reflected lights get as bright as direct illumination, and remember to exaggerate your darks so as to enhance the intensity of the light. Repeat as necessary.
CHAPTER 14 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (no sketchbook exercises)
CHAPTER 15 LINEAR PERSPECTIVE 1- AND 2-POINT
Exercise 15.1 Collect images from magazines or newspapers that can be used to illustrate the nine different monocular cues described in this chapter. Find two illustrations for each cue.
Exercise 15.2 Set up a series of three rectilinear forms, sitting flush with the ground plane, so that all their sets of edges are parallel to one another. Then choose a drawing position and a fixation point at eye level that put you in a one-point relationship with the still life. Gesture, Mondrian, clock angles, proportion boxes, and line variation are all essential elements in developing the drawing, even though we are using Brunelleschi's synthetic system.
Exercise 15.3 Set up a series of four rectilinear forms, sitting flush with the ground plane, so that three of the solids are aligned squarely (their sides are parallel) with one another but not with the fourth rectilinear form. Find a drawing position and a fixation point that put you in a one-point relationship with the uniquely positioned object. Gesture, Mondrian, clock angles, proportional boxes, and line variation are all essential elements in developing the drawing, even though we are using Brunelleschi's synthetic system. Draw the four boxes.
Exercise 15.4 Set up a series of three rectilinear forms, sitting flush with the ground plane, so that no edges of the different solids are parallel with those of the other solids. Then choose a drawing position and a fixation point at eye level that put you in a one-pint relationship with one of the rectilinear forms. Gesture, Mondrian, clock angles, proportional boxes, and line variation are all essential elements in developing the drawing even though we are using Brunelleschi's synthetic system. This drawing will contain objects in one-point and two-point relationships. Once you have completed this first drawing, move to another drawing position and establish yourself in a one-point relationship with one of the other boxes. Draw the setup again from this new position.
CHAPTER 16 LINEAR PERSPECTIVE 3-POINT
Exercise 16.1 Take five rectilinear forms and arrange them relative to your drawing position so that one will be in a one-point relationship, two will be in a two-point relationship, and the last two will be in a three-point relationship with your imaginary picture plane. Of the objects in three-point perspective relationships, arrange one so that it rests on its edge and figure out a way to balance the other one on one of its corners.
Exercise 16.2 Take five rectilinear forms and arrange them so that they are sitting parallel with the floor plane and not more than two of them share alignment (parallel edges). Stand relatively close to the setup and look down at the arrangement. All five objects will now be in a three-point perspective relationship with your picture plane. Gesture, Mondrian, clock angles, proportion boxes, and line variation are all essential elements in developing the drawing. These steps are even more important because we have moved outside the familiar structure of Brunelleschi's synthetic system. Remember, all sets of parallel edges that recede from your picture plane will converge at a single point, and each object in a birds-eye view will have three vanishing points.